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Stainless Steel

Introduction: Stainless Steel (Stainless Steel) refers to the resistance to weak corrosive medium such as air, steam, water and acid, alkali, salt and other chemical etching medium corrosion of the Steel, also called acid-proof Stainless Steel. In practical application, often called the weak corrosive medium corrosion resistant steel stainless steel, and called the resistance to chemical corrosion medium steel acid-resistant steel. Due to the chemical composition on the difference between the two, the former does not necessarily medium resistance to chemical corrosion, while the latter are generally not rust. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel depends on the alloy element content in the steel. Stainless steel alloy elements and basic nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, copper, nitrogen, etc, in order to meet the requirements of various applications on the microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel. Stainless steel easy to chlorine ion corrosion, because of the chromium, nickel, chlorine isotopic elements, isotopic elements will be swapping assimilation to form the corrosion of stainless steel.
1 chemical composition
The corrosion resistance of stainless steel decreases with the increase of carbon content, and therefore, most of the stainless steel and carbon content are low, the largest of no more than 1.2%, some steel Wc (carbon content) and even lower than 0.03% (such as 00 cr12). The main alloying element in stainless steel is a Cr (Cr), only when the Cr content reaches a certain value, the steel corrosion resistance. Therefore, general Cr stainless steel (chrome) content of at least 10.5%. Stainless steel also contains Ni, Ti, Mn, N, Nb, Mo, Si and Cu elements.
Two main categories
Stainless steel often according to the state of organization can be divided into: martensite steel, ferritic steel, austenitic steel, austenitic (two-phase) - ferrite stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel, etc. In addition, according to ingredients can be divided into: chromium stainless steel, chromium nickel stainless steel and chromium manganese nitrogen stainless steel, etc.
Stainless steel
1, ferritic stainless steel, chromium containing 12% ~ 30%. Its corrosion resistance, toughness and weldability with chromium content increases with the increase of chloride stress corrosion resistance is superior to other types of stainless steel, fall into this category of Crl7, Cr17Mo2Ti, Cr25, Cr25Mo3Ti, Cr28, etc. Ferritic stainless steel because of the high chromium content, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance are relatively good, but the mechanical properties and process performance is poorer, more used to stress less acid structure and steel used as antioxidant. This kind of steel to withstand atmosphere, nitric acid and corrosion of the brine solution, and has good high temperature oxidation resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, etc, used in nitric acid and food factory equipment, also can make work under high temperature parts, such as gas turbine parts, etc.
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2, austenitic stainless steel:
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Chromium is more than 18%, still contain about 8% of the nickel and small amounts of molybdenum, titanium, nitrogen and other elements. Good comprehensive performance, corrosion resistant to a variety of media. Number of austenitic stainless steel is commonly used one cr18ni9, 0 cr19ni9, etc. In the Wc < 0.08% 0 cr19ni9 steel, steel grade is marked as "0". This class contains large amounts of Ni and Cr in steel, make steel in austenitic state at room temperature. This kind of steel has good plasticity and toughness, weldability and corrosion resistance and non-magnetic or weak magnetic, the corrosion resistance in oxidizing and reducing medium are good, used to make acid equipment, such as corrosion resistant containers and equipment lining, pipelines, nitric acid resistant equipment parts, etc., also can be used as the main body of watches and clocks jewelry stainless steel material. Austenitic stainless steel with solid solution treatment, the steel heating to 1050 ~ 1150 ℃, then water-cooled or air-cooled, for single-phase austenitic organization.
3, austenitic, ferritic duplex stainless steel:
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The advantages of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steel, and has the superplasticity. Organization in austenite and ferrite accounted for about half of the stainless steel. In the case of contain low C, Cr content was 18% ~ 18%, Ni content at 3% ~ 3%. Some steel containing Mo, Cu, Si, Nb, Ti, N and other alloying elements. This kind of steel both austenite and ferrite stainless steel, the characteristics of compared with ferrite, plasticity and toughness is higher, no room temperature brittleness, intergranular corrosion resistance and welding performance were significantly increased, while maintaining a ferritic stainless steel of 475 ℃ brittleness and high thermal conductivity, has the characteristics of superplasticity. Compared with austenitic stainless steel, high strength and resistance to intergranular corrosion and resistance to chloride stress corrosion is improved obviously. Duplex stainless steel has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion performance, is also a kind of nickel and stainless steel.
4, martensite stainless steel:
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High strength, but the plasticity and poor weldability. The commonly used brand have 1 cr13 martensitic stainless steel, 3 cr13, etc., because of the high carbon, it has high strength, hardness and wear resistance, corrosion resistance is a bit poor, however, higher requirements for mechanical properties, corrosion resistant performance requirements generally over some of the parts, such as spring, turbine blades, hydraulic valves, etc. This kind of steel is used after quenching and tempering treatment. Need annealing after forging, stamping.
5, precipitation hardening stainless steel:
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For austenitic or martensite structure matrix, and the number of precipitation hardening stainless steel commonly used such as 04 cr13ni8mo2al. It can pass the precipitation hardening (also known as the age hardening) dealing with the hard (strong) of stainless steel.
Three historical origin
Graduated from the university of Sheffield's famous scientist is in Henry cabral, metallurgy (Harry Brearley) invented the stainless steel in the beginning of the 20th century. The invention of the stainless steel and use, dates back to the first world war ii. British scientists, Henry cabral, the valley of entrusted by the British government's military Arsenal, research weapon of improving work. At that time, the soldier with a rifle barrel easy to wear and tear, Blair want to invent a kind of not easy to wear and tear of alloy steel. Blair, the invention of stainless steel in 1916 the British patents and start mass production, at this point, from the stainless steel found in the dump is popular in the world, Henry cabral, also known as the "father" of stainless steel.
During the first world war, the British guns on the battlefield, always because of gun barrel wear and use was brought back to the rear. Military command in the development of the high strength wear resistant alloy steel production department bliss, ali specializes in solving the problem of gun barrel's wear.
Bliss ali and his aides have collected at home and abroad in the production of various types of steel, a variety of different nature